Abstract Details

Towards Measuring The Effects Of Digital Gamified System For Economically Disadvantaged Students In Developing Countries

New digital technologies are valuable resources for students’ academic and social development such as a digital gamified system for students. socio-economically disadvantaged students at a primary level mostly lack the opportunity to use modern technology for their educational growth. On the other hand, using technology-enhanced learning in school are most beneficial to socio-economically disadvantaged students such as improving math quiz and puzzle via a cost-effective digital platform. Deploying a digital gamified system in tutoring students is expanding rapidly. A digital gamified system makes educational modules or topics simple, understandable, and interesting to students in learning. Upon continuous growth, it is expected that in future, various gamified systems will be readily available to the users based on their topic of interest. Therefore, an assessment method and tool are vital to access the performance and quality of the digital learning systems and indicate the appropriate digital learning system. Moreover, methods of measuring the quality of the digital gamified systems in various contexts and the impact of gamification techniques for example points-based rewarding in the context of socio-economically disadvantaged students are not available widely.

Hamari et al. (2014) pointed out the following as a methodological limitation on a gamified learning system: sample sizes are small, proper psychometric measurements were not used while surveying user experience, some experiments only considered users evaluation, no consideration for individual motivational affordance, absence of multilevel measurements, for example, motivational affordance, psychological outcome and behavioural outcomes. Relevant research has been done without considering a sampling size. As an example, Hassanzadeh et al. (2012) presented a model that measures the success of the learning system. To the best of our knowledge, little is known about utilizing content gamification learning pedagogy to examine the quality of the digital learning system.

In this study, we focus on introducing content gamification learning pedagogy in a gamified learning system that can have a significant impact on different learners. Content gamification uses game-play mechanics for the non-game applications (Deterding et al. 2011). Gamification, particularly content gamification can help students in multiple areas within an institution to improve learning performance (Geelan et al. 2015). Thus, the expected outcome in using the gamified learning system can also change significantly.

Research question:
The focus question of the study is: What is the effect of the Content Gamified Learning Pedagogy in the digital learning system to influence economically disadvantaged students?
From the focus question two other guiding research questions are included in this study. These guiding research questions are developed based on potential research extents.

  • RQ (1): What is the performance and quality of the digital gamified system?
  • RQ (2): What is the impact of rewarding techniques for example points based rewarding?

To answer the research question, Cognitive Social Learning Theory (CSLT) Bandura (1986) will be utilized in this study that support design instruction and the gamification of learning. This theory contributes to the instructional design of a gamified learning system and the students’ education and learning experience. Its design involves problem-solving and decision making of the students. We will apply Kahoot as an interactive learning platform among the students and the game within the gamified Kahoot-based online system will be used as our gamified learning system. This social learning system will be set up to have the students, interact with artefacts within the game and other students online. Problem solving strategies in relation to quiz such as mathematics puzzle will be practiced and refined within this learning context. Based on the tools of accessing performance and quality, this gamified learning system will be guided by design thinking approach such as human-centered design i.e., students will be engaged to design the mathematics puzzle and quiz within the Kahoot-based gamified system.

An experimental study (in-between subject technique) will be conducted with a group of 40 economically disadvantaged students aged between 6-11 from Bangladesh for one week. Participants who are living in the slum dogs and low-level cosmopolitan area, will be contacted, and invited to take part in the study via invitation letter and consent form. For this type of study ethical clearance is not required. Upon participants consent, they will be appointed randomly to 1 of 2 groups (20 students of group A will be in experimental group and 20 students of group B will be in control group). The experimental group will use the digital gamified learning system in solving primary level math quiz and puzzle, and the control group will have their daily usual routine in solving primary level math quiz and puzzle without using any technological system for one week. Participants will be involved in using learning systems for at least one week. Literature reviewing, suggestions and comments from the participants will be considered to introduce gamified learning system.

SUS evaluation usability scale questionnaire method will be applied to access the quality and performance of the digital learning system. The impact of the point based rewarding system can be notified by accessing the online database of each learner group within the Kahoot-based online gamified system and how they are scoring daily points. After using gamified learning system, and daily usual routines for a week, two parallel surveys shall be conducted for both experimental and control group. Once participants do their daily routines i.e., solve their mathematics-related quiz and puzzles without using any learning system, a post- questionnaire form will be provided to the participants by asking specific questions regarding their daily activities without using any learning intervention. Once participants completed the study, a post- questionnaire form will be provided to the participants by asking specific questions regarding the digital gamified learning intervention. Selected participants (those who felt positive impact in using our digital learning system) shall be face-to-face interviewed and audio recorded. Hence, the collected data analyses will lead to findings and discussion in furthering the current research work.

Expected results:
Using t-test, we will compare the means of experimental group (students who will use the Kahoot-based gamified system) and control group (students who will do their daily usual activities without using a gamified learning system) to ascertain if there is any statistical evidence. The answers between the two groups (experimental group: Kahoot-based gamified learning system; control group: students’ daily usual routine) will be compared after collecting user, data of the face-to-face interviews.

Taking off gamification might have negative effects to the participants that are using the gamification. Moreover, earning the points or earned badges may cause the negative effects of gamification.

This research will explore whether content gamification learning pedagogy is helpful when applied to digital learning system contexts. The research shall indicate the performance and quality of the gamified learning system and the impact of point-based learning system. Therefore, content gamification learning pedagogy might help to provide better methodological tools to examine and predict the efficacy and performance of the digital learning system from the findings of the proposed research. Once we predict and examine the efficacy of the digital learning system, an appropriate learning system can be developed or improved thus will suggest for further directions for gamification research.


  • Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Deterding, S., Khaled, R., Nacke, L. and Dixon, D. (2011), ‘Gamification: Toward a Definition’, CHI 2011, May 7-12, 2011, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
  • Geelan, B., Salas, K., D., Lewis, I., King, C., Edwards, D., and O’Mara, A. (2015). Improving Learning Experiences Through Gamification: A Case Study, Australian Educational Computing, 30(1).
  • Hamari, J., Koivisto, J. & Sarsa, H. (2014). Does Gamification Work? – A literature review of
    Empirical Studies on Gamification, 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Science.
  • Hassanzadeh, A., Kanaani, F., and Elahi, S. (2012), “A model for measuring e-learning systems success in universities”, Expert Systems with applications: An International Journal, 39(12), pp. 10959-10966.

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